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Diabetes - Normal Blood Sugar Range

Presentation Note on what is Diabetes Mellitus – Diabetic Definition, Diagnosis, Normal glucose levels Fasting & After Meal in India in word / .doc / .ppt / .pdf Format

Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease entity, but rather a group of metabolic disorders primarily of carbohydrate metabolism sharing the common underlying feature of hyperglycemia. Alterations in lipid and protein metabolism are also seen. The chronic hyperglycemia and attendant metabolic dysregulation may be associated with secondary damage in multiple organ systems, especially the kidneys, eyes, nerves and blood vessel. Hyperglycemia in diabetes results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or most commonly both. 

DIAGNOSIS :

Blood glucose values are normally maintained in a very narrow range, usually 70 to 120 mg / dl. The diagnosis of diabetes is established by noting elevation of blood glucose by any one of three criteria.

1. A random glucose > 200 mg / dl, with classical signs and symptoms .
2. A fasting glucose > 126 mg / dl on more than one occasion.
3. An abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which the glucose is > 200 mg /dl 2 hours after a standard carbohydrate load.


Individuals with fasting glucoses less than 110 mg / dl or less than 140 mg / dl following an OGTT are considered to be euglycemic. 

However those with fasting glucose greater than 110 but less than 126 or OGTT values greater than 140 but less than 200 are considered to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Individuals with IGT have a significant risk of progressing to overt diabetes over time. In addition those with IGT are at risk for cardiovascular disease due to the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism as well as the coexistence of other risk factors such as low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia and increased plasminogen activator( PAI – 1).


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