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Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

PPT / PDF simple presentation notes on Pathophysiology of type ii Diabetes Mellitus Defronzo, Leahy made easy & Treatment in Adult & Children for medical & Biology students

PATHOGENESIS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS:

While much has been learned in recent years, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes remains enigmatic. Environmental factors, such as a sedentary life style and dietary habits, clearly play a role, as will become evident when obesity is considered. Nevertheless, genetic factors are even more important than in type 1diabetes. Among identical twins, the concordance rate is 50% to 90%, while among first  degree relatives with type 2 diabetes (and in fraternal twins), the risk of developing the disease is 20% to 40%, compared to 5% to 7% in the population at large. Unlike type 1diabetes, however, the disease is not linked to genes involved in immune tolerance and regulation, and there is no evidence to suggest an autoimmune basis for type 2 diabetes.

The two metabolic defects that characterize type 2 diabetes are

(1) a decreased ability of peripheral tissues to respond to insulin (insulin resistance) and
(2) b - cell dysfunction that is manifested as inadequate insulin secretion in the face of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.

In most cases, insulin resistance is the primary event, and is followed by increasing degrees of b - cell dysfunction.

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