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Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Oral Health

PPT Presentation Notes on Periodontium, diseases of Periodontium, Deficiency & Function of Calcium, Magnesium, Fluoride, Iron & Zinc in Teeth Care for Medical & Biology Students in word / .doc Format

Periodontium:-

Periodontium are the specialized tissues that both surround and support the teeth, maintaining them in the maxillary and mandibular bones. These Tissues works a back bone for our teeth.

Minerals, Vitamins & Oral Care

Calcium and Periodontium

Rats placed on calcium-deficient diet showed osteoporotic changes in alveolar bone, reduction in the number and diameter of PDL fibers and  reduction in amount of secondary cementum (Fergusson and Oliver, 1969).It also showed to stimulate osteoclastic activity (Roberts,1975).Patients with osteoporosis are at increased risk for attachment loss (Rondoros et al 2000). Krall et al., (2001) studies suggested that low dietary intake of calcium may result in severe progression of periodontal diseases. 

Its content is increased on the exposed part of the root surface wall of the pocket. Calcium channel blockers ex.Diltiazem,Verapamil,Nifedipine etc. are known to induce gingival enlargement. Calcium (39%) is one of the main content present in calculus.

Magnesium and periodontium

Widening of PDL has been observed with magnesium deficiency (Klein et al 1935).the eruption rate of rat incisors has been reported to decrease in animals fed with Mg deficient diet.Thse effects may be related to the role of Mg ions in several enzyme systems.Animal as well as clinical studies suggested that Mg supplementation may prevent or retard periodontitis (Meyle et al 1987).

High Mg concentrations inhibit free-radical generation; activation of neutrophils is an early effect of hypomagnesaemia (Bussiere et al 2002).Mg deficiency is also associated with low bone mass, which is manifested in the oral cavity as loss of alveolar crestal bone height and tooth loss, accompanied by stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines(Wactawski-Wende 2001).Daily oral supplementation may have beneficial effects in reducing bone loss (Dimai et al 1998).

Fluoride and periodontium

it was observed that there fewer areas of PDL hyalinization in fluoride treated animals than in controls.Hellsing and Hammarstrom (1991)found a significant reduction in pressure side osteoclast numbers in orthodontically moved teeth in rats treated with sodium fluoride.

Iron and periodontium

Severe iron deficiency has been related to periodontal destruction in dogs (hall and robinson, 1937).Laison et al (1968) gained the impression that patients with moderate to severe periodontitis sometimes had subnormal levels of iron. Iron deficiency is also associated with decreased lymphocyte proliferation, neutrophil chemotactic activity and antibody response.

Zinc and periodontium

Zinc helps in stabilization of membranes, antioxidant activity, collagen synthesis, inhibition of mast cell release of histamine. zinc deficiency is associated with decreased antibody response, phagocytic function of macrophages and B-cell and T-cell proliferation. Thus supplementation of zinc may help in treatment of periodontal diseases as an adjuvant.


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