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Type 1 Diabetes Pathogenesis

PPT Presentation Notes Review on Type 1 Diabetes Pathophysiology, its Prevention, Pathogenesis Genetics and Immunotherapy for Medical & Biology Students in word/ .doc Format

PATHOGENESIS OF TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS :

This form of diabetes results from a severe lack of insulin caused by an immunologically mediated destruction of b cells. Type 1 diabetes most commonly develops in childhood, becomes manifested at puberty, and progresses with age. Since the disease can develop at any age, including late adulthood, the appellation “juvenile diabetes “   is now considered obsolete. Similarly, the older moniker “insulin dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) has been excluded from the recent classification of diabetes to reflect the emphasis on pathogenic mechanisms rather than mode of therapy. Nevertheless, most patients depend on insulin for survival  without insulin, they develop serous metabolic complications such as acute ketoacidosis and coma. A rare form of “idiopathic” type 1 diabetes has been described in the which the evidence for autoimmunity is not definitive.

Type 1diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which islet destruction is caused primarily by T lymphocytes reacting against as yet poorly defined    b - cells antigens. As in all autoimmune diseases, genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis. We first describe the mechanisms of b - cells destruction and then discuss the current ideas about the factors that trigger autoimmune attack against these cells.

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